For a democratic, federalist and subsidiary world state
[deutscher Text hier...]
Theses on the current problems
1. The number of global problem areas and the transnational solutions they require has increased rather than decreased in recent decades: Poverty and underdevelopment, global warming, ecological disasters such as the destruction of rainforests, increasing pollution of the oceans, the waste problem, global terrorism, transnational proxy and cross-
2. The increasing digitalization and virtualization of the planet have also increased the associated threats: Hacker attacks on state and private institutions, cybercrime that can hardly be traced across national borders and, conversely, increasing control and surveillance of people by state institutions, as well as great influence and extensive power of digital corporations.
3. National armaments are growing unchecked and many markets for violence are proving to be increasingly uncontrollable.
4. Climate change has shown that nation-
Ideas for possible solutions
Armaments: in 2020, 15 major countries spent the following amounts on armaments (in billions of U.S. dollars): the U.S. $778 billion, China $252 billion, India $73 billion, Russia $62 billion, the U.K. $59 billion, Saudi Arabia $58 billion, Germany $53 billion, France $53 billion, Japan $49 billion, South Korea $46 billion, Italy $29 billion, Australia $28 billion, Canada $23 billion, Israel $22 billion, and Brazil $20 billion (see Statista 2021).
Environment: glaciers on planet Earth are shrinking, and not just in the Alps, but worldwide. Between 2000 and 2019, 267 billion tons of ice were lost per year (cf. Titz 2021:20). The melting of glaciers is accelerating: between 2000 and 2004, 227 billion tons of ice were still turning into water each year; between 2015 and 2019, 298 billion tons per year, i.e. 31% more. In 2020, deforestation of the Earth's rainforests -
The biggest obstacle to the establishment of a democratic world state is that many people (and nation states) distrust a concentration of power with a world government.
One of the main reasons for the peculiar helplessness of global governance in crisis and war situations is the lack of a legitimate world police force and the fact that -
The three central parts of state power are -
According to Held (1995:272), in an expanded democratic world order, its participants would have a guardian function. Whole clusters of actors and networks would guarantee international law. Gradually -
2021: Primary Rainforest Destruction Increased 12% from 2019 to 2020. By Mikaela Weisse and Elizabeth Goldman. Link or Link.
2021: Hackerangriff trifft EU-
1995: Democracy and the Global Order. From the Modern State to Cosmopolitan Government. Standford/CA: Stanford University Press.
2021: Cyberattacke legt Erdölpipeline in den USA lahm. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung vom 10.5.2021. 23.
2021: Die Fläche der Schweiz in einem Jahr abgeholzt. Die Zerstörung des Regenwaldes geht ungebremst weiter – auch die Folgen der Pandemie tragen dazu bei. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung vom 1.4.2021. 18.
2003: Der minimale Weltstaat. Zur politischen Interpretation der Schwerkraft. Frankfurt/Main: Peter Lang.
2021: Ranking der 15 Länder mit den weltweit höchsten Militärausgaben 2020 (in Milliarden US-
2021: Gletscher schwinden immer schneller. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung vom 30.4.2021. 20.
Download texts (free download):
Unit D43: The missing world state
Unit D42: Global governance
Unit E19: State. politics and ethics
Unit D16: Nations and nation states
Unit D21: The concept of the state by John Rawls
Unit C17: Gender, state and conflicts
Unit D 12: Concepts of the state in the early modern period and in the enlightenment